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Analysis of the factors influencing the machining accuracy of CNC lathe

Views: 28     Author: Site Editor     Publish Time: 2020-06-21      Origin: Site

Analysis of the factors influencing the machining accuracy of CNC lathe

As an advanced processing equipment, CNC lathe can bring huge economic and social benefits in practical application. In the process of CNC lathe machining, the accuracy control of product quality is very important, especially the application of automation technology. Compared with the traditional machining technology, the advantages are more prominent, which puts forward new requirements for the machining accuracy of CNC lathe in the new era. In NC lathe machining, the programming accuracy, servo accuracy and interpolation accuracy are directly related to the machining accuracy. In addition, the CNC lathe in the production and processing, but also by the environment, manufacturing and materials and other factors, if the lathe construction deviation can not be effectively controlled, will directly affect the quality and accuracy of parts processing, there is still to be further improved.

1. Working principle of CNC lathe

As a kind of mechanical and electrical integration product, CNC lathe integrates many modern technologies in practical application, which is helpful to improve the processing efficiency and accuracy. In the process of parts processing of general lathe, the operator needs to change the moving track of the workpiece in combination with the construction drawings, which puts forward higher requirements for the processing of the workpiece in the new era. 

In the process of machining parts with CNC lathe, it is necessary to fully grasp the process parameters and process flow, compile the process flow through CNC language, issue instructions to the servo system, and realize the automatic processing and manufacturing of parts.

2. Influence factors of machining accuracy of CNC lathe

In the process of NC lathe machining, there are many factors, and the servo control method and accuracy will affect the machining accuracy of NC lathe to a great extent, which will lay a hidden danger for the subsequent parts processing. In terms of machining accuracy of CNC lathe, the influencing factors mainly include: 

① lathe geometric error; ② lathe tool geometric parameter error; ③ lathe thermal deformation error; ④ servo feed system error; ⑤ tool wear error.

In terms of the influencing factors of lathe machining accuracy, the error of servo feed system and the error of turning tool geometric parameters are common factors, which affect the machining quality of parts to a certain extent. 

At present, in the processing of CNC lathe in our country, the ball screw is driven by servo motor to control the processing position, and the transmission error of ball screw is one of the main factors affecting the positioning accuracy of CNC lathe. Throughout the current situation of CNC lathes in China, mainly closed-loop control system. 

In the actual operation, if the servo motor lead screw moves in the opposite direction, it will not only affect the machining accuracy of the parts, but also lead to the idling of the CNC lathe due to the emergence of the gap, which is difficult to avoid. Under the influence of external forces, the moving parts may have elastic deformation, which aggravates the severity of CNC lathe error, and cannot effectively control the machining accuracy of CNC lathe.

In the process of machining parts, the turning tool cuts the parts in the preset motion track. Due to the deflection angle and arc radius of turning tool, there will be a certain size deviation when machining parts, and the axial size change will increase with the increase of arc radius. 

Therefore, the change of axial displacement length depends on the adjustment of axial dimension. In the process of machining parts of CNC lathe, it is necessary to comprehensively analyze the axial dimension and displacement length, and optimize the processing flow. It should be noted that the parameters of tip distance, arc radius and part center will directly affect the accuracy of part processing, and the service life of CNC lathe also depends on the grasp of these parameters, whose importance is self-evident.

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